Automation, Labor, and the New Work
Image result for human vs robot
Image result for human vs robot


"So our jobs are being taken away from us, like taking away candy from a baby. We have incompetent people that are running our country, we don't know what they're doing. Our jobs are going to Mexico, China is dumping steel all over the world. I see what's going on, this was the steel capital of the world by far, nothing close, and now I see what they're doing. You've lost your manufacturing jobs, you've lost your steel jobs.... and it's being taken away from you because of devaluation, all of the devaluation and it makes it impossible for companies to compete and we're losing our jobs. Companies are moving to Mexico...." (Donald Trump, People are desperate for jobs, YouTube).In one of his campaign discussions, President Donald Trump emphasized on devaluation and outsourcing being the cause of lost jobs in America. But is devaluation and outsourcing really the issue? According to and article published on March 29, 2016 by USnews.com, the United States has lost 3.2 million jobs to outsourcing since 2001. However, Moneycnn.com reported that 5 million manufacturing jobs have left the United States since 200, and what was the key cause of this? Technology and Automation.==What Is Automation???//== According to the dictionary, "automation is the use of automatic equipment in a system of manufacturing or other production process (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/automation)." New, fast developing technology is changing the job market because machines are taking jobs that used to be held by humans. the irony is that “Productivity is at record levels, innovation has never been faster, and yet at the same time, we have fewer jobs." (bryonfl...)
Image result for SELF CHECKOUT VS HUMAN
Image result for SELF CHECKOUT VS HUMAN


Automation is more than just robots and artificial intelligence, it is also found in the self-check-out lanes in stores, self-driving cars, auto pilot on air planes, and automated teller machines (ATM’s). While technology is making several jobs safer, easier, and more productive, it is also lessening the need for human workers.

How is Automation taking jobs?


Automotive plants, which used to be filled with human workers have now been transformed by industrial robotics, regularly using machines that weld, assemble, and paint car parts automatically. This is a video showing a Kia plant and how the whole process is made using robots (https://youtu.be/sjAZGUcjrP8).


An article called "Artificial Intelligence: The impact on jobs," determined that jobs that are the most vulnerable to automation are routine. Experts predicted that jobs like taxi drivers, receptionist, security guards, cashiers, telemarketers, and even accountants are at risk to be substituted by computer capital. One finds it difficult to argue with these predictions, because our generation have witnessed the invention of the phone apps, Uber and Lyft.


Image result for UBER LYFT
Image result for UBER LYFT



Uber and Lyft are startup transportation network companies, that created applications which allowed users to request for rides to a destination. Then the application assigns a registered driver. The drivers could be anyone from a full time driver to a local college college student just trying to make some extra cash on the side. The requirements to be a driver is to have a license, a car, and a phone, with their registered information in the application. From then, they are assign to pick up passengers that request for a ride. The application automatically structures it to where the driver and passenger are never to far apart, which allows a quick pick-up and drop off.



Due to this application, the average amount of taxi rides already have plummeted by 30%. (The Lost Angeles Times). According to the San Francisco Examiner Joe Fitzgerald Rodriguez reported that the biggest taxi company in America, The Yellow Cab Company, will have to file for bankruptcy protection. But things have not stopped there. According to Fortune Autos, General Motors is testing an app for a user to request rides in self-driving cars. Thus eliminating human drivers altogether.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKQ-6YnrKNc

How does automation affect social classes?


Automation is creating a gap in the middle class because the jobs that it can do are jobs such as bookkeeping, clerical work, and repetitive production jobs in manufacturing. All of these jobs are filled by middle class workers. When robots take these jobs the gap between the upper class and the lower class will get bigger and create more inequality among Americans. Economist predict that there will be a, “polarization of the workforce and a hollowing out of the middle class” ( Autor). A college degree will be beneficial for the people who will have jobs, leaving less educated people unemployed. “At the same time, higher-paying jobs requiring creativity and problem-solving skills, will be aided by computers (Autor).” While middle class jobs will decrease, the demand for low skilled jobs, such as waitresses, janitors, home health aids will increase, because those types of jobs are hard to automate.

How will automation affect the Economy?

It is not all bad news though; economist predict that workers will adjust their skills based on the changing markets and entrepreneurs will create opportunities based on the new technologies, so the number of jobs is expected to recover. We can look back at history and the industrial revolution to figure out how the economy will react to new technology. According to Rotman, “In 1900, 41 percent of Americans worked in agriculture; by 2000, it was only 2 percent. Likewise, the proportion of Americans employed in manufacturing has dropped from 30 percent in the post–World War II years to around 10 percent today.” When the industrial revolution introduced new technologies to the workforce it changed the job market by decreasing the amount of farmers need and increasing the amount of factory workers needed. The industrial revolution increased the standard of living for many people. The question is what will be the next type of jobs that will be needed after the effects of Automation?


The New Work Force



Image result for artist vs machine
Image result for artist vs machine

Jobs that require social intelligence will be the few remaining jobs that technology will have a hard time to replace. The era of Automation and Technology always brings out the theory of Survival of the Fittest. Advance reports from Nesta sent to Fortune.com show that the takeover of US employment by automation requires people to be "highly creative!". Eighteen percent of the total workforce are at low risk or no risk for automation, and 87% of those creative feilds includes artist, musicians, advertising specialist, and other creative occupations.

The creative class is believed to be automation bullet-proof, because it requires "human minipulation" and "human perception," is something that is difficult to automate. Creative jobs still require the human touch.











Sources



http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-uber-lyft-taxis-la-20160413-story.html


http://fortune.com/2017/02/08/gm-self-driving-cars-video/

http://fortune.com/2015/04/22/robots-white-collar-ai/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKQ-6YnrKNc
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/515926/how-technology-is-destroying-jobs/
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/automation
http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/four-fundamentals-of-workplace-automation
http://www.pitlanemagazine.com/morals-values-and-norms/using-automation-to-make-daily-life-easier.html





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